For example, adolescents find it easier than children to comprehend the sorts of higher-order abstract logic inherent in puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies. This therefore has caused various factors to become important during this development.
Offenders Demographics Offenders are more likely to be relatives or acquaintances of their victim than strangers. Frequently, victims do not make the connection between their abuse and their present pathology.
For example, girls tend to reduce their physical activity in preadolescence   and may receive inadequate nutrition from diets that often lack important nutrients, such as iron.
Changes in secondary sex characteristics include every change that is not directly related to sexual reproduction. This process is different for females and males. Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support.
Pubescent boys often tend to have a good body image, are more confident, secure, and more independent. Causal factors Causal factors of child sex offenders are not known conclusively.
The rates of self-disclosed abuse for specific continents were as follows: Being able to introspect may lead to two forms of adolescent egocentrism, which results in two distinct problems in thinking: Some of the issues first addressed by this group include: Adolescents pay close attention and give more time and effort to their appearance as their body goes through changes.
This model has been contested, and alternate ideas have been explored in recent years. Improvements are seen in both working memory and long-term memory. The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys.
Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children. The first facial hair to appear tends to grow at the corners of the upper lip, typically between 14 and 17 years of age.
Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormonestissue responsiveness or obesity. These relationships become significant because they begin to help the adolescent understand the concept of personalities, how they form and why a person has that specific type of personality.
Risktaking may also have reproductive advantages: The definition includes any sexual activity between children that occurs without consentwithout equality, or due to coercion whether the offender uses physical force, threats, trickery or emotional manipulation to compel cooperation. Incest Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult is known as child incestuous abuse,  and has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity to damage the young person.
The second is the information-processing perspectivewhich derives from the study of artificial intelligence and attempts to explain cognitive development in terms of the growth of specific components of the thinking process.
Through experience outside the family circle, they learn that rules they were taught as absolute are in fact relativistic. Children younger than age nine often cannot comprehend sarcasm at all.
Three neurotransmitters that play important roles in adolescent brain development are glutamatedopamine and serotonin. The male and female gonads are subsequently activated, which puts them into a state of rapid growth and development; the triggered gonads now commence the mass production of the necessary chemicals.
However, the creases in the brain continue to become more complex until the late teens. Effects Psychological effects Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.
Freud believed that the psychological disturbances associated with youth were biologically based and culturally universal while Erikson focused on the dichotomy between identity formation and role fulfillment.
Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. This may help explain sex differences in athletic performance. In contrast, though both sexes experience an increase in body fat, the increase is much more significant for girls.
Adolescents tend to be more independent; they can benefit from individual or group therapy. The age at which particular changes take place varies between individuals, but the changes discussed below begin at puberty or shortly after that and some skills continue to develop as the adolescent ages.
Risk-taking Because most injuries sustained by adolescents are related to risky behavior car crashesalcohol, unprotected sexa great deal of research has been done on the cognitive and emotional processes underlying adolescent risk-taking. While coming out can also foster better psychological adjustment, the risks associated are real.
Indeed, coming out in the midst of a heteronormative peer environment often comes with the risk of ostracism, hurtful jokes, and even violence.
Peer pressure is a large factor when youth who are questioning their sexuality or gender identity are surrounded by heteronormative peers and can cause great distress due to a feeling of being different from everyone else. At the conclusion of puberty, the ends of the long bones close during the process called epiphysis.
Early maturing boys are usually taller and stronger than their friends. These include the lateral and prefrontal cortices, among other regions. In males, these changes involve appearance of pubic, facial, and body hair, deepening of the voice, roughening of the skin around the upper arms and thighs, and increased development of the sweat glands.Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult is known as child incestuous abuse, and has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity to damage the young person.
One researcher stated that more than 70% of abusers are immediate family members or someone very close to the family.
Adolescence (from Latin adolescere, meaning 'to grow up') is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority). Adolescence is usually associated with the teenage years, but its physical, psychological or cultural expressions may begin earlier .Download