Many questions about its origins, its unusual epidemiologic features, and the basis of its pathogenicity remain unanswered. Factors believed to be responsible include partial herd immunity limiting virus spread in all but the most favorable circumstances, which include lower environmental temperatures and human nasal temperatures beneficial to thermolabile viruses such as influenzaoptimal humidity, increased crowding indoors, and imperfect ventilation due to closed windows and suboptimal airflow.
The potential role of the other proteins, singularly and in combination, is also unknown. There were reports that health-care workers could not tend the sick nor the gravediggers bury the dead because they too were ill. All influenza A pandemics since that time, and indeed almost all cases of influenza A worldwide excepting human infections from avian viruses such as H5N1 and H7N7have been caused by descendants of the virus, including "drifted" H1N1 viruses and reassorted H2N2 and H3N2 viruses.
Academic Andrew Price-Smith has made the argument that the virus helped tip the balance of power in the later days of the war towards the Allied cause. In the model, "a modern day "Spanish flu" event would result in additional life insurance losses of between USD Abstract Past influenza pandemics appear to be characterized by multiple waves of incidence, but the mechanisms that account for this phenomenon remain unclear.
Many questions about its origins, its unusual epidemiologic features, and the basis of its pathogenicity remain unanswered.
However, new information about the virus is emerging, for example, sequencing of the entire genome from archival autopsy tissues.
As was true for the pandemic, the second recurrence produced of the most deaths. Some hypothesized the flu originated in East Asia. Since little or no selection pressure is exerted on synonymous changes, they are thought to reflect evolutionary distance.
The first 2 waves occurred at a time of year normally unfavorable to influenza virus spread. He provides data that the viral waves hit the Central Powers before they hit the Allied powers, and that both morbidity and mortality in Germany and Austria were considerably higher than in Britain and France.
The timing and spacing of influenza epidemics in interpandemic years have been subjects of speculation for decades.
The latter are composed of key genes from the virus, updated by subsequently incorporated avian influenza genes that code for novel surface proteins, making the virus indeed the "mother" of all pandemics.
But in August, when the second wave began in France, Sierra Leone and the United States,  the virus had mutated to a much deadlier form. Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to cause "community-level outbreaks".
Received May 28; Accepted Jun The sequence data, however, leave unanswered questions about the origin of the virus 19 and about the epidemiology of the pandemic.
The primary data from the above studies 11 — 17 and a number of reviews covering different aspects of the pandemic have recently been published 18 — 20 and confirm that the virus is the likely ancestor of all 4 of the human and swine H1N1 and H3N2 lineages, as well as the "extinct" H2N2 lineage.
Post pandemic period Levels of influenza activity have returned to the levels seen for seasonal influenza in most countries with adequate surveillance. Policemen wearing masks provided by the American Red Cross in SeattleA street car conductor in Seattle in refusing to allow passengers aboard who are not wearing masks Red Cross workers remove a flu victim in St.
The pandemic reached them from New Zealand, which was too slow to implement measures to prevent ships carrying the flu from leaving its ports.Of these, the – “Spanish flu” pandemic was among the deadliest public-health crises in human history, killing an estimatedpeople in the United States and an estimated 50– million people worldwide.
Gina Kolata. Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of and the Search for the Virus That Caused It. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, xi + pp. Ill. $ Although intended for a general audience, this book should interest many historians.
The story of the influenza. Sep 07, · The influenza pandemic was the deadliest pandemic in history. An estimated 50– million people were killed worldwide, and one-third of the world's population is estimated to have been infected [ 1 ].
The Flu Pandemic Abstract One of the most virulent strains of influenza in history ravaged the world and decimated the populations around the world. Present during World War I, the strain of pandemic influenza found. Nov 21, · The "Spanish" influenza pandemic of –, which caused ≈50 million deaths worldwide, remains an ominous warning to public health.
Many questions about its origins, its unusual epidemiologic features, and the basis of its pathogenicity remain unanswered. Many historians call the Great Influenza Pandemic of the deadliest disease outbreak of all time. As many as million people were killed as a direct result of this disease (Taubenberger 1).
The Great Pandemic affected everyone, the prosperous and the poor, developed and underdeveloped nations.Download